Nowadays, there are plenty of networks that work in a cooperative way and form what we know as grids of computers. These grids are serving a lot of purposes, and they are used with good results for intensive calculation, because the joined computing power aids in solving complex functions. To cope with these new requirements and facilities, programming languages have had to evolve to new paradigms, including facilities to do distributed computing in a straightforward way.
Cache based attacks are a class of side-channel attacks that are particularly effective in virtualized or cloud-based environments, where they have been used to recover secret keys from cryptographic implementations. One common approach to thwart cache-based attacks is to use constant-time implementations, which do not branch on secrets and do not perform memory accesses that depend on secrets. However, there is no rigorous proof that constant-time implementations are protected against concurrent cache attacks in virtualization platforms; moreover, many prominent implementations are not constant-time.